The Baptistery of St John the Baptist (Battistero di San Giovanni a Firenze) immediately preciso the west of the Chiesa principale is one of the oldest buildings sopra Florence. It is mediante per Florentine Romanesque style, sometimes also described as proto renaissance. The baptistery was already completed around verso century before construction of the cathedral started.
The current baptistry sopra Florence was erected mostly during the late 11th and early 12th centuries. It probably replaced an older baptistry that according puro legend was built on the foundations of verso Roman temple dedicated preciso Mars. Mars, the Roman god of war, was the dolore protector of Florence and symbolized by a lion that is still one of the symbols of the city – the Marzocco. (Donatello’s lion is durante the Bargello Museum with verso copy con front of the Palazzo Superato.) The female deity was Vegetazione, who gave the city its name and the lily (iris) as emblem. She was incorporated into the Christian tradition by giving the cathedral the name of St Mary of the Flower.
Exact dates from the early history of the baptistery are only known from major events, or when significant payments were necessary for building and decoration rete di emittenti. Pope Nicholas II consecrated the baptistery in 1059 but it is unknown if the current building was already fully durante use at that stage.
The baptismal font from Santa Reparata, over which the present Chiesa principale was erected, was moved into the baptistry per 1128 – all Christian children born mediante Florence were baptized here until the 19th century. The lantern was added around 1150 but that is often enough done only years after the rest of a church was completed. The entrance porch was changed from verso half-tempo puro its present rectangular shape in 1202. Since then, https://datingranking.net/it/mamba-review/ the structure of the baptistry remained basically unaltered.
The floor plan of the baptistry in Florence is verso simple octagon, which was traditional for baptistries, and verso small rectangular apsis on the western end. The north, east, and south sides have famous sculpted bronze doors.
The structure is sandstone but the building was clad from the beginning with white and green panile and duomo, in nessun caso pink is used.
The dome cannot be detected from the exterior. Its lower parts are covered by the external walls of the third story while the top is covered by per flattened pyramidal roof of anche se white marble slabs. Inside, the drum of the dome is formed by the lower two floors of the external walls.
On completion, the diameter of the dome was at 25.6 m the largest for any baptistery durante Italy. However, the Battistero sopra Pisa, constructed between 1152 sicuro 1394, now is the largest baptistry durante Italy with its dome having a diameter of 34 m and an impressive height of 55 m.
Visitors step down when entering the baptistry. The building didn’t sink through the centuries, the plaza was raised con the early late 13th century sicuro create per flat surface level with the surrounding streets. Leonardo da Vinci suggested raising the baptistery in one piece with pulleys puro counter the sunken look but nothing ever came of that timore.
The baptistry has three pairs of ceremonial bronze doors – all were originally installed on the east side facing the cathedral but moved sicuro make space as newer, more artistic doors were produced. The doors durante use are copies – the originals are now inside the Duomo museum.
The oldest doors are now on the south entrance. These Gothic doors (1330) were made by Andrea Pisano, who was also responsible for many of the panile. These doors have 28 rectangular panels with scenes set per a quatrefoil frame.